The Grains for Health Foundation mission for optimal child nutrition is the incorporation of grain-based foods in school meals that are both higher in whole grain yet lower in excess calories, fat and sodium.
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From publications to abstracts to books, we make available the resource materials crucial for either the understanding of child nutrition or to complement research.
Dietary Modeling Shows that Substitution of Whole-Grain for Refined-Grain Ingredients of Foods Commonly Consumed by US Children and Teens Can Increase Intake of Whole Grains
Currently available whole-grain foods are not frequently consumed, and few children achieve the whole-grain intake recommendation.
To investigate the influence on whole-grain consumption of substituting whole-grain for refined-grain ingredients of foods commonly consumed by children.
Secondary cross-sectional analysis of publicly available food consumption data collected by the US Department of Agriculture.
A nationally representative sample of US children aged 9 to 18 years (n= 2,349) providing 24-hour dietary recall data in the 2003-2004 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey.
MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES:
Whole-grain intake was modeled by replacing varying proportions of refined flour contained in foods such as pizza crust, pasta, breads, and other baked goods with whole-wheat flour, and by replacing a proportion of white rice with brown rice. Replacement levels were based on the acceptability of whole-grain foods tested among children in elementary schools, and ranged from 15% to 50%; the majority were ≤25%.
STATISTICAL ANALYSES PERFORMED:
Sample-weighted mean pre-modeled and post-modeled whole-grain intake, standard errors, and statistical significance of differences between demographic subgroups were determined using SUDAAN (version 9.0.3, 200 Research Triangle Institute, Research Triangle Park, NC).
Whole-grain intake increased 1.7 oz eq per day (from 0.5 to 2.2 oz ez/day). Pre-modeled and post-modeled whole-grain intakes were 6% and 28%, respectively, of total grain intake (7.7 oz eq/day). Major sources of post-modeled whole-grain intakes were breads/rolls (28.0%); pizza (14.2%); breakfast cereals (11.0%); rice/pasta (10.6%); quick breads such as tortillas, muffins, and pasta (10.8%); other baked goods (9.9%); and grain-based savory snacks other than popcorn (7.3%). Pre-modeled whole-grain intake differed by poverty level, but post-modeled whole-grain intake did not.
The substitution of whole grain for a specific proportion of refined grain ingredients of commonly consumed foods increased whole-grain intake and reduced disparities between demographic subgroups of children and teens.
Arndt, PhD, E. A., Keast, PhD, D. R., Rosen, PhD, R. A., & Marquart, PhD, RD, L. F. (2011). Dietary Modeling Shows that Substitution of Whole-Grain for Refined-Grain Ingredients of Foods Commonly Consumed by US Children and Teens Can Increase Intake of Whole Grains. Journal of the American Dietetic Association, 111, 1322-1328.
Gradual Incorporation of Whole Wheat Flour into Bread Products for Elementary School Children Improves Whole Grain Intake
Whole grain intake is associated with health benefits but current consumption by children is only about one-third of the recommended level. The purpose of this study was to test the feasibility of an innovative approach whereby the whole wheat content of bread products in school lunches was gradually increased to increase whole grain intake by children.
A convenience sample included children in K-6th grade from two elementary schools in a Midwestern city. Whole red and white wheat flour content of buns and rolls served twice weekly was increased from 0% to 91% in 16 and 7 incremental levels, respectively over the school year. Red wheat products were served in one school and white wheat products in the other. Plate waste methods were used on a whole school basis to estimate consumption. ANOVA procedures were used to determine whether whole grain and modified bread product intake differed by level of whole wheat flour and menu entrée category.
Mean consumption of whole grain (g/child) increased as the level of red and white whole wheat flour increased in modified bread products. Consumption of modified bread products did not differ statistically from baseline (0% whole grain flour) until the 72% level for red and 67.5% level for white wheat was served. Consumption of buns and rolls varied with type of accompanying menu items regardless of wheat type or level.
APPLICATION TO CHILD NUTRITION PROFESSIONALS:
A gradual increase in whole wheat content in menu items resulted in favorable whole grain consumption by children. This approach may allow school foodservice directors to gradually introduce acceptable whole grain products into school menus.
Rosen, MS, R. A., PhD, RD, . M., Reicks, PhD, RD, M. M., Schroeder, N., & Sadeghi, L. (2008). Gradual Incorporation of Whole Wheat Flour into Bread Products for Elementary School Children Improves Whole Grain Intake. JCNM. 32(2).
The Effect of Food and Beverage Prices on Children’s Weights
One factor that may be important in explaining rising childhood obesity is food prices. This report explores the effect of food prices on children’s Body Mass Index (BMI) using data from the Early Childhood Longitudinal Study, Kindergarten Class of 1998-99 (ECLS-K) and the Quarterly Food-at-Home Price Database. On average, higher prices for soda, 100 percent juices, starchy vegetables, and sweet snacks are associated with lower BMIs among children. In addition, lower prices for dark green vegetables and lowfat milk are associated with reduced BMI. The effect of subsidizing healthy food may be just as large as raising prices of less healthy foods.
Todd, J. E., & Wendy, M. (2011). The Effect of Food and Beverage Prices on Children’s Weights . USDA, ER-118. Retrieved September 8, 2011, from http://www.ers.usda.gov/publications/err118/